(ipcc, 2007c:813). Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York,.Y.,.S.A., retrieved References edit Carbon Trust (March 2009 Global Carbon Mechanisms: Emerging lessons and implications (CTC748), Carbon Trust Grubb. (2001:421) found that although research into renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies had increased, it was still a relatively small proportion of R D budgets in the oecd. Other policies edit Regulatory instruments : This could involve the setting of regulatory standards for various products and processes for countries to adopt. 36 Policy insurance can insurance the investor against changes or disruption to government policies designed to encourage low carbon technology, such as a feed-in tariff.
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Corrections can be made to GDP estimates to allow for these problems, but they are difficult to calculate. 16 There are a large surplus of emissions allowances in the former- Soviet economies Economies-in-Transition" - EITs while several other oecd countries have a deficit, and are not on course to meet their Kyoto targets (see Kyoto Protocol#Annex I Parties with targets ).
Gradual emission reduction reduces induced sectoral unemployment. Instead, it was suggested that there was some degree of flexibility between economic growth and emissions growth. The discount rate is one of the factors used in these models. 14 The Kyoto treaty is a "cap-and-trade" system of emissions trading, which includes emissions reductions in developing countries non-Annex I Parties through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). In the efficient baseline, it is assumed that all resources are being employed efficiently. In (book section Technical Summary". Fossil fuel-exporting regions are likely to be affected by losses in coal and oil exports compared to baseline, while some regions might experience increased bio-energy (energy derived from biomass ) exports (Gupta., 2007,. . (2007:776-777) assessed studies where estimates are given for regional mitigation costs. 5 "When" flexibility potentially lowers costs by allowing reductions to be made at a time when it is most efficient to.
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